History of Gnawa People of Morocco, Algeria and Libya, North Africa .

History of Gnawa People of Morocco, Algeria and Libya, North Africa .

Gnawa People can be found in Morocco, Algeria and some parts of Libya, they are part of the Beber ethnic group and related to the Maghreb People of Morocco.  
According to Gnawa Anthropologist,  it is claimed they originated from Present day Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Mali due to the Pre Gnawi Mali wars which led to migrations.
 According to the Oral history, they  originated from the Sahelian region of the west and central Africa due to migrations, extensive trading to Present day Morocco they later adopted Islam which is practiced by the majority of Gnawa their traditional music is combined with the Islamic sufism and African traditions.  
In their Culture musicians are referred as people who pratice healings which ties to the pre Islam African rites,  Musicians play deeply hypotic music which is marked by low toned, rhythmic sintir, melodies, call and response singing, hand clapping and Karakeb.   
Traditionally they are mostly musicians they held annual festival in August which is known as the World music festivals.
it is said they were enslaved and became free under various circumstances it is said the enslaved Gnawa originated from Senegal to Chad, Mali to the North and Nigeria to the South.  
It is said many of them came from a Kingdom in Northern Mali in the 11th Century others claimed the largest population came from Djenne in Present day Mali  and not all of them were enslaved from Western part of Africa some were native from Present day Morocco, turath is a cultural display they persevered their music and dances. 
The Romans into the Moroccan  caravan in the 3rd century BCE it is believed they inhabited the coastal areas of Magherb of North Africa, the enslavement first began with the dynasty in Present day Morocco during the Islamic areas the Al Marabitun and the ruler of a dynasty called Yusuf Ibn Tashfin an Arab Moroccan under his commander he provided more troops for capturing the Gnawa, then Almoravids defeated the Alfonso Vl in 1086AD in the battle of Zallaqa.
 The third dynasty under the rule of Mawlay al Mansur invaded the Songhay in Present day Mali in 1591 AD and gave them permission to have more Soldiers for his army in the late 17th Century he gave instructions to enslave all Blacks including the free black people to form his own army.  
They still have their own spirituality before Islam, they have their own Jazz music which links back to the west coast of Africa lutes like the Hausa halam the direct ancestor of the banjo.
The music is one of the well known music by the Gnawa which it is claimed it was introduced to other ethic groups in North Africa in the 11th Century the music culture arrival of the Sub saharan their music in the 1960s became one of the Authentic symbols of the Moroccan Culture it include folks, hammadi, bangara, toura toura, the hammadi invokes the blessings of Muhammad the Prophet as they believed, toura toura was composed by a Gnawa in Algeria is another incantation of saints and genis and  bangara dates back to the Ancient Mali Empire this song is invocation of saints and genis.  
Lila is the most important ceremony the master accompanied by a group of Musicians and followed by drumming, singing, dancing they also play their three string bass lute called Guembri and qaraqaba and also recite poems their traditional dance which includes high jumping and original acrobatics movement which dates back approximately 3,400 BCE..
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