History of Afro Paraguayans of African Ancestry in Paraguay , Central South America .

History of Afro Paraguayans of African Ancestry in Paraguay , Central South America .

Afro- Paraguayans are African Descendants in Paraguay , Central South America and they were captured by the Europeans especially the Spanish from different parts of Africa such as Angola , Nigeria , Mozambique , Kenya , Equatorial Guinea , Cameroon , Central African Republic , Gabon , Togo , Niger , Burkina Faso , some parts of Senegal and Benin only few came from Ghana and Guinea Bissau . It is said Mostly Afro- Paraguayans are of Kamba , Fon , Tikar , Bamileke , Yao , Nguni , Bubi , Adja , Yoruba , Igbo , Ibibio , Wolof and other African ethnic groups .

 Afro- Paraguayans can be found in Kamba Cua also spelled as Camba Cua outside Asuncion , Kamba Kokue outside of Paraguari , the city of Emboscada . It is believed Afro- Paraguayans Historians believed that neo- Africanization , of Camba Cua and by extension Kamba Kokue and Emboscada , presents unquestionably a positive development for Paraguay’s Afro descendants. 

It is said up to date the essence of Kamba Cua Culture is Identified with drumming and the accompanying dance , while in Kamba Kokue or Camba Kokue and Emboscada only vague notions of a ‘’ Black’’ past form a common Identity . Afro- Paraguayans sold into Slavery by Spanish were considered mostly of Yoruba and Ibibio of Nigeria, Igbo of Nigeria , Ambundu , Umbundu of Angola , Bubi of Equatorial Guinea , Fon and Adja of Togo and Benin and Kamba of Kenya Ancestry . 
 It is said Afro- Paraguayans were concentrated in the Eastern part of Paraguay which is part of their 3 communities . 
The First Africans arrived from Africa to Paraguay in the 1520s It is said they mainly raised cattle ranches , they had agricultural farm, their population increased by local mating and mixing . In the 1570s, Paraguay had 3,000 Mulattos or half casts and Mestizos by the 1650s , the black population was counted at 15,000 an Increase , In 1782, there was a decline to 10,840 then Paraguay developed a system known as Amparo.
It is said Freed Africans could not pay tribute to the State would be placed under the government or religious order to work designated lands . The Amparo was believed to be like a status for Enslaved Africans and Emboscada was founded based on Military Purpose , the War of Triple Alliance in 1864, Afro- Paraguayans were used in the Paraguay Military and they became Soldiers . It is believed In 1869, all enslaved Africans declared their freedom about thirty- there point three percent ( 33.3%) of their population were murdered in the War.
Dr. Jose Ignacio Telesca narration History about Afro- Paraguayans of Paraguay.

According to Jose Ignacio Telesca’s account , Enslaved Africans legally entered from the ensclavitas ports of Buenos Aires , Montevideo and Codora , Telesca claimed that those entered illegally came from Brazil.
 Thus , the Spanish Explorer known as Pedro de Mendoza reached Rio de Plata in the 16th Century and brought Enslaved Africans to Paraguay . However, The Population continued to Increase , as already in 1811, half of the Paraguayan populations was of African descent whether Enslaved or Freed, Several towns INclude Aregua , Emboscada and Guarambare were established as a black communities In Paraguay with the arrival of Aritgas who also arrived with an Enslaved Kambas from Keya , Uruguay to Paraguay In the 1820s , It is said they arrived in a recigment of 250 or more who accompained JoseAritgas .

The History of Afro- Paraguayans narrations of the African Descendants in Paraguay by Natalia Ruiz Diaz and John M. Lipski .
 According to Natalia Ruiz Diaz , Black Communities have for the most part remained out of sight and out of mind in Paraguay , but now they are organising and claiming equal economic and social rights , while building an African Identity . The Paraguayans state does not recognized them as an ethnic minority , an Afro- Paraguayan General Secretary of Kamba kua known as Jose Carlos Medina, The Settlements in Kamba Kokue , Kamba Kua and period in 1782, Enslaved Africans have been brought from Africa since 1556.

Emboscada was founded in 1740 with the name of Emboscada de Padros Libres meaning the place of ambush of Freed blacks in Spanish , because ambushes frequently took place there , and Its first settlers were 500 Freed People of Africans similar communities grew up in Paraguari and other places in the region , Enslaved Africans kept on cattle ranches , Kamba Kua was settled by members a regiment of 250 lancers , both men and women , In 1820 It is believed the regiment went into exile in Paraguay with General Jose Artigas the revolutionary Independence leader of the Banda oriental in what is Present day Uruguay . According to John M. Liskpi account, Emboscada is a small city located in the Cordillera region of Paraguay . The History of Emboscada and the surrounding region dates back to the 16th Century.
 It is believed the 1520s Spanish settlers brought the First Africans to Present day Paraguay . Many of the Enslaved Africans were from Angola , Congo , Kenya , Nigeria , Equatorial Guinea , Mozambique , some parts of Senegal .Niger , Benin , Togo and Gabon . Paraguay had few from Ghana as well and also have few precious metals , there are three black communities in Paraguay , Kamba Cua , Kamba Kokue meaning “ Chacra de Negros” the black farm in Guarani language , and Emboscada.
These are three communities in the Eastern Region of Paraguay . Paraguay has been developing Negritud de colores “ black colors” , that runs in different cities . It is said Afro- Latin American musician and dance with rescued African roots of this Continent . The Paraguayan Singer known as Marivi Vargas and his team of musicians , drummers and dancers from Kamba cua led by Lazaro Medina and offer a show that aims to make Afro- Paraguayan Culture a visible part of the collective African descent .  
It is believed during the Colonial era , Afro- Paraguayans were known locally as Pardos . They were a Significant presence in Paraguay and , In 1785 , comprised the population of another towns such Aregua , Emboscada and Guarambare were originally established as black communities . 
Afro- Paraguayans achieved their freedom during Spanish rule , after Paraguay’s Independence in 1812 many were forced back into Slavery by Spanish then later in 1842 , It is believed Paraguayan government declared the Law of the Free Womb which stipulated that any children born of Enslaved Africans after that date were able to be freed on their 24th birthday this law was stimulated a raid .
The History of Afro- Paraguayans narrated by Mark Jacobs and Stephen Kioko.

According to Mark Jacobs on Afro- Paraguayans , Afro- Paraguayans are Paraguayans of African descent or African Ancestry.
 They can be found in the city of Camba Cua outside Asuncion , Kamba the Kokue outside of Paraguari , and the city of Emboscada . 
In the first decade of the 21s Century the notion that Paraguay has no black population which is false , Afro- Paraguayan dance group , the ballet Kamba Cua has its roots in Present day Kenya , which they give performance across the Country and in neighboring countries , and whose celebrations of St. Balthasar, Some historians believe that the neo- Africanization of Camba Cua , and by extension Kamba Kokue and Emboscada Afro- Paraguayans are considered as the Irrisible and expert drumming and dancing African descendants in the Americas. According to Stephen Kioko on Afro- Paraguayans.
The Afro- Paraguayans of Kamba Ancestry in Kenya consists pf about 10,000 People has evolved into Sub-group of Akamba or Kamba Cua , an Important central department Afro- Paraguayans community in Paraguay , their history can be easily traceable back to the 1820.

 Their ballet is only Afro- Paraguayan expression , and premiered at the folk festival peach Uruguay Yi sings in 1992 , where they won the Golden Charrua .

The History of Afro- Paraguans narrated by Sydney Chick , Les Du Monde , Celph Titled , Panocojams , Mas Kani and Muntu Baula Mathe Mabaso .

According to Sydney Chick’s account on Afro- Paraguayans , The Afro- Paraguayans can be found in Camba Cua or Kamba Cua , Kamba Kokue , the City of Emboscada and the vast majority Enslaved Africans were believed to be of Nigerian and Angolan origins.
According to Les Du Monde account on Afro- Paraguayans , Since the Independence in 1811 , the presence of Citizens of African descents on Gurani soil has been systematically denied by the Paraguayan authorities . Excluded from the formal labor market , the descendants of Enslaved Africans , landed between the 16th and 19th Centuries , are gradually emerging from isolation in the wake of young leaders who it is believed they have not experienced the persecutions of the last totalitarian period from 1954 to 1989 futhermore , Enslaved Africans fought alongside during Uruguay and Paraguay’s War of Independece.
 According to Celph Titled of New Spain’s account , They only make two percent ( 2%) of the population , Mostly their African Ancestry comes from Angola and Nigeria and you can see , these people are very mixed with other ancestry . According to Mas Kani a Kamba native from Kenya’s account on Afro- Paraguayans , The Kambas in Paraguay , now forget the gospel song , Ikamba , enthusiastically sang by 2 young men who are visibly frothing with note and Superiority malady . Mas Kani quoted ; “ i will tell you something about Kamba that no history book in our education system will tell you “‘ . 
There is a large collection of Kamba population which has been living in Paraguay for almost 200 years , and established itself as an ancient community among the locals , with a population numbering close to 10,000 popularly known as Kamba Cua and Kamba Kokue , they are settled some 15km to the east of Paraguayan Capital Asuncion in municipality of Fernando de la Mora . It is actually reported that as early as 1500s some Africans were already in Paraguay as Slaves . Majority from West Africa , Central Africa and Kenya . The Kamba’s of Paraguay are part of the Large Afro- Paraguayan community which is Paraguayans of African descendants.
It is believed The Kambas first arrived as Soldiers accompanying the revolutionary Independence fighter , General Jose Gervasio Artigas by the general as part of his regiment for their agility , bravery and unparalleled dexterity in war . The Kamba community in Paraguay is widely respected for its staunch loyalty to its Identity and Culture , promoted through its traditional festivals . They practice dairy and secondarily agriculture in addition to being assimilated to other activities of the nationhood building . 
They often perform Kamaba style dances , complete with decorated yellow customs and drums , which attracts a lot of Spectators and buzz across South America , and in their premier participation of the Folk festival peach “ Uruguay sings in 1992 ‘’, they own the Golden Charrua and their well known or popular performances , almost similar to the Kilumi dance or lately the moves by Kativui , Ken Wa Maria , the polyrhythmic drum beats are spiced with dramatic energetic leaps and even at times somersaults.
According to Muntu Budula Mathe Mabaso ‘s account , It is believed Afro- Paraguayans are Paraguayans of African descent , found largely in Kamba cua also spelled as Camba Cua . Afro- Paraguayans speak Guarani language . Majority of Afro- Paraguayans were kidnapped as slaves from Nigeria and Angola to Paraguay , which Paraguay became their home in 1556 . Others came as runaways from Brazil, Buenos Aires in Argentina, Montevideo and Córdoba.     
Others to follow was a group of 250 Kenyans followed by their women in 1820 who went with General Jose Gervasio Artigas . These men and women as Kamba Cua and Kamba Kokue . In 1650, Afro- Paraguayans had population of 15,000 which later declined to 10.840 in 1782 . Paraguay developed a system known as Amparo.

Freed Africans that couldn't pay tribute to the state would be placed under the government or religious order to work designated lands . The Amparo was believed , It is like to be a status like slave.
 It is said Religious Orders like the Franciscans , Dominicans , and Jesuits founded Amparo towns such as Aregua and Tabapi . Some towns were founded to mark off and Paraguayan borderies and served as a buffer of attacks , from Indians Emboscada was claimed to be an Amparo founded for Military purpose .
 The End of Slave Trade in Paraguay was said to be a gradual process in 1842, Free womb laws were enacted of enslaved people , but as for Slavery and Amparo the Spanish Colonists never stopped but continued it , It wasn't until the War of Triple Alliance in 1864 , It is claimed when the country ended Slavery . Afro- Paraguayans were used as Soldiers, It is said in 1869 they fought and died in wars .  
Afro- Paraguayans Culture , Traditional Dance and Festival of Paraguay .

In Afro- Paraguayans Culture , Godparents are particularly Important , If parents become unable to provide for their children , God parents are expected to assume responsibility for them and Yerba Mate is their traditional herbal tea , Is consumed year round chilled in Summer , hot in winter and Terere which is a bitter tea made from the same types of leaves that are used to brew Yerba Mate .
They celebrate an annual Kamba Kua music festival and dance festival throughout Paraguay on the 1st August , they believe their medicine is made up of lemon , ruda and it bring happiness , drive away evil forces and protect people health and According to other research Afro- Paraguayans performed their traditional dance which originated from Kenya such as Ndelekeni , Mbenior , Ngulumange , Kilumi and J. Poetner also believed the African masks influenced their mask .
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