History of Ovambo People of Namibia and Angola .

History of Ovambo People of Namibia and Angola .

Ovambo People People also known as Owambo People can be found in Namibia and Angola , they are part of the Bantu speaking people and they are related to others part of the Bantus , they are one of the largest ethnic group of Namibia , they speak Ovambo language also referred as Oshiwambo , Ambo and Kwanyama language . 

They are also known for Ivory trading , shopping complexes , stalls and Cuca shops all over the region, women are Involved Intricate artwork and crafting like dressmaking, pottery, basketry and wood craving like in many African cultures , the women are also traditionally responsible for cultivating the land and raising children , many men now work on mines or have moved to the cities .
 According to Arebbusch , The Owambo people also known as the Ovambo people are synonymous with Namibia and are the largest cultural sector found in this country , representing over a third Namibia’s total population concentrated mostly in the north, the Owambo consist of eight tribes namely the Ndonga , Kwambi , Ngandyela , Mbalanhu , Nkolokabi and uda tribes they are considered as a resourceful and productive tribe areas of the economy from agricultural and fishing to trading , they cultivate maize, sorghum , beans, watermelons, onions and mahango , a type of millet also they fish when the low lying areas fill with water from Angola and then drive their cattle onto the fertile grazing lands which are left behind when the waters subside , manure produced by these fertilise their crops which are cultivated on the higher ground where the floods do not reach , they are keen traders and cuca shops food markets are plentiful wherever the Owambo can be found . 
Home industries selling clothing , carvings , pottery , baskets, among them families are Involved in retail activities of some kind and many have extended their enterprises further into Present day Namibia and beyond , to Angola before colonialism , Owambo society consisted of a King and his headman in each groups although succession was matrilineal , the King had the final say , In their Culture women were responsible for cultivating the land and raising their children while It is believed men take care of cattles and other Important matters.

 In this modern day only three of the Owangos are recognized as a Chief and many of their traditional customs have made a way for modern days of life . Traditional homesteads consisting of palm huts enclosed with the wooden pole fences can still be seen in some places and Nakambale Museum and traditional village is a good recreation of a traditional Owambo Kraal, this facility is also an example of community run accommodation in Namibia , where the local tribesman own and manage facilities.
 According to other accounts the Ovambo people consist of a number of kindred Bantu ethnic groups which inhabit the Ovamboland in Northern Namibia as well as the Southernmost Angolan province Cunene , In Namibia they are the largest ethnic group and they migrated South from the Upper regions of Zambezi and currently make up the most largest population in Namibia , It is believed that they settled in an area because of its rich soil that is scattered around Ovamboland and they are considered to be part of the Bantu family and they still have traditional dancing that involves drumming and Oshiwambo folk music .  
In Ovambo Culture their traditional home is built as a group of huts surrounded by a fence of large vertical poles, most families have a large pot of land , and most households own goats , cattles, pigs , It is very Important for young men their responsibility is to attend to the goats and cattles , by taking care of them to find grazing areas during the day , and bring them back home in the evening . 
Ovambo believe in Kalunga when Ovambo member enter their Chief’s kraal traditionally they must first remove their sandals , shoes or slippers It is believed if anyone refuse or disrespect the law it may bring harm or unexpected death as a sign of punishment to one of the royal inmates and throw the kraal in mourning and another belief with burning fire in the Chief’s kraal if the fire burns out , someone might disappear In Ovambo tradition , end of harvest ceremony is an important ceremony which takes place everyone can attend it and celebrate a feast .

Chiefs are very responsible most members of Ovambo royal family are known as Aaakwanekamba and only those who belong to a royal family by birth or ancestry can claim Chieftainship It is said matrilineal line relation must fall on the mother’s side , the Ovambo brew traditional beer known as Ombike is a homemade non alcoholic beer It is made up of marula fruits , mahangu a type of cereal , the fruits It is believed it contains a high percentage of Vitamin C this is consisdered as a great source for the people and others believed Ombike is a traditional drink made from wild fruits and It is mainly sold on open markets in Northern regions of Present day Namibia . 
According to Arroukatchee , Ovambo mostly live in the north , near the border with Angola the Ovamboland living on both across the Cunene river with forms the border between the two countries and up to Okavango , where they practice agriculture and cattle ranching , they consist of seven distinct tribes and the most numerous are Kwanyama , Ndongo and Kwamba Kafima . Ovambo and Herero It is believed they arrived in the 15th Century throughout the 17th Century Northern and Central Namibia among them the staple food are millet , sorghum , beans are eaten with millet in the north and meat is highly desired and eaten . 
In Ovambo tradition Important occasions are marked by slaughtering of cattle or goats , and consumption of meat , home brewed beer , purchased beverages , and other foods in some of their cultures , leftover meat is sent home with guests they are opened and friendly as well , diamonds , gold and other mineral are the most important exports in Ovamboland followed by processed and unprocessed fish , other food products , and live animals .
 Marriage is one of the most Important events , bringing family and friends together to sing , dance , and feast their traditional wedding include vows in ceremony accompanied by Identically dressed bridesmaids and groomsmen then exist to a crowd of guests shouting praises , singing praises , dancing and waving horsetail whisks . It is said Ovambo group has lived under the guidance of their Chiefs who assigned plots of land to each family but when the tenant died , traditionally chiefs assigned the land to a new person and in around 1550 , they moved southwards from the Great Lakes in East Africa and settled between Kunene and Okavango rivers and Owambo clans are still recognized and ruled by their Kings and Chiefs in council .
According to the Owambo Oral history The Owambo name or Ovambo name dervied from the Herero language Ovajamba for the wealthy people , other suggestion that the name Owambi is from where other claimed to Kenya Embo mountains a place It is believed they originated from in Kenya Embo mountains . 

The Owambo people share same Ancestors and they were considered to be two brothers who descended from Emboland after reaching Zambezi river , one of the brother and his followers decided to settle in the area , while one of the brothers including Herreros pushed westwards in the 16th Century reaching Present day Angola while other groups went Southwards a King is referred as Omwene Wosilongo meaning the holder or guardian of the Ovambo land and a King also with his Ovakuluhu meaning the royal elders must endowed with powers to communicate with Kalunga which is God the Creator and the royal Ancestors through prayer . 
Adorment women piercing women wear elaborate braids and copper or leather bands around their necks , making their figures appear very elongated , traditionally jewellery such as Ekipas are ornamental buttons made from Ivory or bone that were worn by Owambo women in the ancient times, displayed at the back on leather straps hanging down from the waist , the number of Ekipas worn gave Indication of women’s status and wealth of her husband , Ekipas were curved into oval, round square , multi- cornered or albong forms with a raised centre, resembling a tiny beehive or rounded pyramid , they were usually engraved with a border with different geometric patterns around the outer edge , some were fashioned less frequently from vegetable , Ivory this modern day ekipa is currently regarded as a cultural artefact . Owambo perform traditional dances such as Omupembe , Omakanda ,Kaume Kange , Dhanelende places and Olufuko is a is a traditional Owambo female Intiation where young bride used to undergo a wedding transition rites with the blessings of Namganga , an honourary name given to Intiate and female entitled given but traditional messages at ocassions . 

Before the arrival of Europeans which is the Portuguese In Ovambo Concept Kalunga created the first man and woman they had one daughter and two sons the daughter’s lineage was believed to have been created the matrilineal systems and Finnish Lutheran missionaries arrived in Ovamboland in 1870 followed by Roman Catholicism and Angilcian entered area in 1884 upon the defeat of Germans in world war I, Owambo together with the rest of South West Africa became a mandated territory administered by South Africa , South African force persisted until 1900, When Namibia became Independent the main road through the region on links it with Angola and the copper and lead mining centre of Tsumeb to the southest , the regions in the central north along Angolan border , Oshakitati , Ondangwa , Oshikango and Ombalantu are the pricinpal settlemets.
9" data-ad-format="auto" data-full-width-responsive="true">