Harari People of Ethiopia

Harari People of Ethiopia

Harari People of Ethiopia can be found in Ethiopia , they are part of the Kushitic or Cushitic speaking people and they are related to Zay People of Ethiopia , Gurage People of Ethiopia , Saho People of Ethiopia and Argobba People of Ethiopia . They grow crops such as mangoes , papayas , bananas, watermelons , oranges , maize , coconuts and other crops.
 They live in rectangular- shaped houses and the walls are made of twigs overlaid with clay and the roofs are made of thatch . The region surrounding harar receives up to inches of rain , this enables the farmers to produce enough grain to satisfy their needs.
 Traditionally, Harari stew is made with meat , potatoes, vegetables, and eaten with Sourdough bread, a boy forms a core of close friends from other neighborhood boys his own age.
A girl becomes friends with the daughters of women who visit her mother , social , ceremonial occasions as wedding and funerals . 
Their community organize 50 to 75 family members usually aunts , uncles and cousins . According to Harari Oral history , Their Pre- Industrial Urban Culture has existed since 1500s until 1974, they lived exclusively inside the stone walls of Harar , an ancient city , where they specialize in trade. Over many centuries , Harar, which is located on a highland ridge between the red sea and Ethiopian highlands, has been the dominant center in north east Africa. In their tradition, Harari has over 150 shrines apart for that they also practice Islam and almost every adults during Ramadan the 9th month of Islamic year.
 It is said few people drink beer and there was an earlier Harari Kabir known as Aw Sofi Yahya who arrived in Harar Present day Ethiopia in 1216 as part of Abadir’s retinue . It is believed Yahya established a first madrasa area around the south of the city center . Others claimed Harari People have ancestral connections to the Adere and Bilen People of Eritea and Harari Region is surrounded by three highland massifs. 

These are the Charchar highlands, the populations or ethnic groups written records and oral tradition can enable them to only reconstruct a fragmentary . It is said Harari were the Oldest Identifiable population in that area .  
The Ethiopian Emperor Amdan Seyon I from 1314- 1344 It is believed that their King had joined the combined forces of Muslim leader Salih was beaten by Christian troops near Present day Dawaro . Until the 16th Century when Muslims of the Horn under the leadership of Imam Ibrahim Al- Ghazi , It is believed Ethiopians and Somalis waged what , the Gursum and the Harar Highland and they constitute the Eastern Ethiopian plateau . The eastern most section , the Harar highland is covering areas west and south west of Muhtkar Mountain up to the east and northeast of Shadda .  

According to Prof. Ulrich Braukamper , The Harar plateau is in the Northeast Africa for its wealth of archaeological findings, particularly ruins of stone- built mouments . In most cases, however It is believed to be hardly possible to link these objects historically and According to the Oral tradition , Oromo of the Chercher and Harar regions , the destruction of the Harala occur through War . In the region of Harar town exists, Abadir Kumar Al- Rida the legendary ancestor of Harari People of Ethiopia, who is said to have come from Present day Yemen but others claimed Present day Arabia in the begining of the 13th Century AD . 
It is believed Harari have dominated history of the Harar plateau during the last 4th Century , Others believed Harari ancestors came from Hamasen in Present day Eritea and Emperor Dawit l ruled Ethiopia from 1382- 1413 waged what is known as holy war against Ethiopian Christians . The Futuh al- Habasha account, about these wars , refers to the Harala, Ahmad Ibrahim was born around 1506 in the region of Fuyan- Bira and was ethnically affiliated to the Harala . 
Ahmad was supposed to have established marriage relations with Somali Chiefs around 1585 AD. Thereafter It is said they suffered the same fate as all the ancient states east of the Ethiopian Rift Valley and disappeared the Oromo in the course of their huge expansion in the 16th to the 17th Centuries Present day Eritea to the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian plateau where they participated in the foundation of the Muslim State of Shawa at the end of the 9th Century and settled in the east of Harar in Present day Ethiopia over the last 300 years and dominated with both Oromo and Somali .  
According to Djibo’s account , The Harari like the Gurage, the Harari People also known as Harare People are considered to be also Semitic in Origin . They have long Inhabited the walled City of Harar . Harari People are particularly known for their distinct two- storey houses , known as gear and for the very colorful traditional costume still worn by many Harari women and Harari were known for great crafts for weaving , baskets , bookbinding and scholars .  
According to Futuh’s account , An ancestor of Harari , Cabdallah came from Tigrayland to Harar plateau in Sultan Sa’d ad- Al Din ll of Adal era, he was a contemporary of Emperor Dawit l . The Sultan gave his daughter for marriage and their Male children were called Qur’ai , the females receiving the Ba’tiah . Whereas the Balaw remained as an ethnic subgroups among the Eritrean Bedja, Arrogbba founded some settlement in the Harar plateau already before , around AD 1200.
 It is claimed Harari and Argobba ancestors originated from the Arabian peninsula . The Harari vibrant colors spice up, It a lid a lid with a leather handle , early 20th Century It is made of straw , leather and fibre . It is Harar is mall the 4th holiest city . It is said is is being compared as just like Muslim who call it Mecca amd Christians and Jews who call the theirs Nyame .  
Harari People have different types of Traditional wedding such as Nikkah , Sirri , Waqaailm , Bun Wa Halawu , Aruz Mak, Raga Karabu , Qalam Masbar , Zagan Karabu , Ankar Mahtab, Allalla, Henna Okhat , Mawid , Aruz Magbaa , Halawa, Baqal Moose , Abba Matora, Enay Gabata, Mowta’a , Gufta Mowag and Hirat . According to Zawaj account, Harar, an ancient City surrounded by great walls has the most colorful market place in Ethiopia. Harar was for centuries the main center for Islamic learning and Culture in Ethiopia, and a prosperous center for the Caravan trade . It is the Spiritual heart of Harari’s large community and It was founded in the early 12th Century and great walls surrounding was built in 1600s for neighboring hostile groups . 
It is said Harari are an Ethiopian Semitic People native only to the City of Harar in Northeastern Ethiopia and they have their own form of music , dance and dress . In their Culture , Harari have their own religious songs , Karabu drum is used for Harari wedding celebration , they perform Gey Faqar.
They also play wedding songs with dibbe drum, their women play traditional membranophone and their kids play a game known as Wershato a stick game . Harari also make a drum known as Karabu in Harar followed by Mahfuz Mugad in the 1970s who was Harari Mugad Iconography displays external musical Influences and technologies, radios usually stand in front and group members hold microphones and Imported Instruments . The late Nuria Ahmed Shami Khalid aka Shamitu , most well known Harari Poet and Singer .
 According to Gambella’s account , The State of Harari People is located in the Eastern part of Ethiopia, surrounded by the State of Oromia. The Capital City of the state is Harar one of the most historical town. Harar was founded between 7th and 11th Century , emerging as the region in the horn of Africa. During the Middle ages, Harari was part of the Adal Kingdom in the 1520, It became the Capital of Adal Kingdom , Under Abu Bakr Ibn Muhammad . During the 16th Century , which is thought of as the Golden Age . It is believed in the 16th Century , a war conquest was launched from Harar by Mohammed Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim Al- Ghazi . His Successor , Emir Nur Ibn Mujahid , built a protective wall around the City . Known as Jugol , this structure still stands today , at 4 metres tall and with 5 gates .
Following the death of Emir Nur, Harari’s wealth and power began to decline . The City was later ruled by Imam Muhammed Jasa, who then abandoned it in 1577 due to Oromo attack.
Harar regained their Independence under the leadership of Ali Ibn Da’ud , and was then ruled by Egyptians from 1875- 1884.
 Harari built ancient wall , Rowda Waber Harari Cultural Guest house, Winta Hotel , Anisa Guest house and Amir Harari Cultural Guest house . The Harari pendant , is held at the Museum of Natural history and said Colmar was founded in the 9th Century and Harari speak both Amharic , Harari and Oromo language according to 1994 record uptill now . 
According to Yohannes Jemaneh account , Harari People have a traditional tool in their homes made up of mud designed as a cemetery . Harari also erect a Statue called Awach or Inayach for men and women who passed away after accomplishing invaluable favour to the society with Knowledge and discipline . 
During Ashura , New Year’s Festival , Harari enjoy through breaking a gourd , a fruit with a very hard shell , to show their strength to their peer mates and to attract girls . And the girls would give response to the Guy they are Interested with.
 Ashura Harari New Year Celebration is consisted of various activities including the porridge feeding programme and observation of the show of hyenas.
It seems very adventurous but very Interesting Scene look at such Interaction between a human and hyenas. 
The Programme of the hyenas . In Custom of Harari People of Ethiopia , this rituals performance has been carried out for a long period . Feeding the hyenas has two meaning to this society . 
First, If the hyenas eat the porridge , It means New Year is hopeful . However , If the Opposite occurred the Harari would start eve with a long prayer assuming the year would bring something bad and Harari is known as Harari Ethiopian Mecca or Jerusalem.
According to Marcus Baynes- Rock, In early Childhood , Waraba is believed to be a terrifying beast of the Imagination. As Children mature , their Conceptions are overturned as they learn that local hyenas in fact peaceful.
 It is the hyenas from beyond , throughout and beyond middle Childhood, representations of hyenas in songs , chants , folktales and idioms to represent other humans while at the same time reflecting an engagement with the local hyenas . Harari wear colorful dress and the men often dress in red, purple or black.
 It is said Harar City marks Its 1,010th anniversary , a young man skewers chunks of meat onto stick , holds the stick in his mouth,and then proceeds to feed hyenas who emerge from the darkness , their eyes glowing as they step into the light.
According to the young man he quoted , “ We don't call them hyenas but priests and every new year in the Arabic Calendar , they have a porridge feast for them in the four corners of the City and For Centuries, Hararis have lived side by side with hyenas”. 
 The Harari women part their hair in the middle and make large buns behind their ears . Harari women have been known for their basketwork for centuries and still weave Intricate creations from coloured fibers and grasses . Harar City is also known for Its Silversmiths , who craft beautiful ankles , necklaces , arm bands , silver chains , bangles and earrings out of the precious metal and some of the best selections can be found in the homes of craftsmen and women .  
Harari towns Include Aboker Muti , Awu Umer , Awuber Kele, Burkai , Dire , Teyara, Erer Dodota, Erer Hawaye , Erer Ulanula , Erer Weldya , Gemeshra , Harar , Harewae , Hasengae , Kile , Migay , Segcha , Sikul and Sofi.
 They celebrate rain festival between June and September throughout every year in the Southeast of Dire Dawa and harvest festival they used maize , sorghum , coffee , orange , mango and other crops for celebrations among Harari People. They performed traditional dances such as Balageru , Bahilawi , neck dance , Spinning dance , Shamuna dance , Kaki dance , sacred rain dance , hydah dance and other kinds of traditional dances .
Below are The Harari Wedding in Harari Culture of Ethiopia :

1. Nikkah : Nikkah is a traditional marriage combined with Islamic Culture is a contract where the bride and groom consent to the marriage . This is done at any point before the wedding . Once the Nikkah is completed , the bride and groom are considered as married couples . 

2. Sirri : The elderly women of the community make a type of bread called Sirri and take it to Ay Abida , a highly respected saint . This is done , a week before the wedding . And is hoped that the newly held couples will be blessed in their marriage and married life . 

3. Waqaalim : Waqaalim is distributed to close family and friends after the bride and groom have spent a night together , to symbolize and announce the purity of the woman . If the woman was deemed to have not been practicing chastity and It is still made as a traditional rituals.

4. Bun Wa Halawa : It is when the Bride's side take some coffee and sweets to Jumuah Masqeed on Fridays , the largest mosque and shrines to receive blessings and well wishes .

5. Aruz Mawalal : The Bride and her entourage of about 15 single ladies dress in cultural clothing and walk around the streets of Jugal . This usually starts after the asr prayer around 4 pm , and lasts until 10pm . They also visit some houses to invite family and friends . Whilst walking the bride ,may see people she forgot to invite and is sure to invite them to her wedding . This is also an opportunity to take some bridal at Ada Gar Cultural house . 

6 . Raga Karabu : Some elderly women from the close circle of the bride's mother get together to chant some songs Including some dancing with the bride and family . This is done after guests have finished eating Haaris a traditional porridge containing meat and this takes place outside in the courtyard of the bride’s family house . 

7. Qalam Masbar : The Bride demonstrates that she is Knowledgeable and ready for marriage using pen and she write spiritual verses while others are watching her . 

8. Zagan Karabu : Most guests would have arrived at the wedding house , and the main party begins here , the bride her family and friends get together to celebrate the union of the bride and groom . Usually , this celebration just Includes females . This takes place inside the main living room of the bride’s family house . 

9. Ankar Mahtab: People would wash a newly slaughtered cow whilst celebrating the wedding. This event takes place in the wedding day at the bride’s family house . The Bride and guests all change outfits three times during the main wedding day .

10 . Halawa : The groom’s side bring some sweets to the bride groom house .
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