History of Nambya People of Zimbabwe.

History of Nambya People of Zimbabwe.

Nambya People can be found in Zimbabwe and they are related to the Ndwandwe and Kwanda People of Zimbabwe . They are part of the Bantu Speaking People , they are Inhabitants of the area around Hwange National park , the second biggest national park in Africa after Kruger national park which boasts the big five game . 
It is believed that Nambya are of Shona Ancestry and they came from Great Zimbabwe after the fall of Great Zimbabwe , a Sub Chief known as Sahwanga fled from Present day Dete .
 It is said some went to live in Bumbusi , this possibility is reinforced by stone structures that are similar to some of them in Great Zimbabwe and It is believed Nambya are closely related to the Kalanga in Southwestern Zimbabwe and Shona varieties in Present day Central and Eastern Zimbabwe.
According to George Mayomba account on Nambya People of Zimbabwe , They left Masvingo and they came and crossed kana river through most often than not , they travelled through most dangerous animals such as lions , leopards , elephants and snakes of different kinds . 
They used risky routes because of fear and normally , they had enough food to cover such a journey .
 They are said to have driven some cattles along with them , after kana river , they approached Lwaye Present day Gwayi river .
They followed along Lwaye river until they came to Its confluence with river Lukuzhe also referred as Lukosi after which they settled at Present day Tinde . As they were planning to leave the place , a daughter of one elder Chief gave birth to a baby boy named “ Pashu” meaning locusts destroying and Indeed there was a great famine caused by these locusts.
Then after Tinde, they followed the north-eastern direction and came to an area known as Kabila near Zambezi . “ Kanila” is a Tonga phrase meaning water unfavorable”, to them . Once again , still waiting for summer rains to terminate and continue with the exodus , one of the Princesses gave birth to a baby boy and was named “ Shaba” meaning coloured red.
They left them together with a few people to look after her and the children . After this , they abandoned Initial direction and turned west , still along the Gwayi river and finally came to the place known as Chingehali near Present day Kumati .
Leaving the Princess at Chingehali , the next stops was Dopota where they said to have fought a Wese Chief who was a Spiritualist . The Chief was known as Chilukutu . The two did not wedge a battle at once . What happened was Nambya Chief learnt he called a Spiritualist to speculate how strong was the other Chief.
 They could easily conquered him despite his reputation . The army was launched to attack he was defeated and Chief Chilukutu was believed to be executed . The Nambya clan continued in the search of greener pastures until they came to Detema Present day Dete .
According to the Oral tradition on Nambya People of Zimbabwe , there was a ruler known as Rozvi and he had 3 sons they were known as Dewa , Dende and Sabhatule . The Paramount Chief was known as Mambo , disputed of Chieftainship between his son arose . It is said Dende decided to break away from his father ‘s Kingdom and set up his own court rules , and take over or ruled his followers . Dende organized strong people such as Soldiers , Engineer , Scouts , women and young ones and they left moving Northward in a search of greener pastures .

 According to Wentzel , In the 18th Century Dende one of the three sons of Rozvi broke away from his father to established himself as an Independent ruler in Present day Northwestern Zimbabwe , It is believed Nambya were considered to be the descendants of Rozvi and they originated from Great Zimbabwe .
 According to Kufakunesa Mawira , Dende and his followers , a patrilineal people of the clan which the totem is a monkey who were later known referred as Nambya , entered the Leya territory via Lowere Gwayi , setting in Bhale area between Gwayi , Nyatuwe and Lukosi rivers . 

They assimilated some of the Leya who had not resisted their Incorporation into Nambya state . On the top of a strategic hill named “ Shangano “ meaning to meet and build a stone walled enclosure and It became the first Capital city of Nambyas . Nambya People moved from Shangano city to Bumbusi area in the Upper Deka valley during the reign of the 5th Whange , Shana ruled from 1834- 1860 . 

The walls of Shangano ruins are built of a vast quantity of small sandstone rocks laid on top of each other to a height of about four to five feet in the modern day most of the wall enclosure mostly collapsed due to unprotecting from the weather and wild animals .
The Hwange in Zimbabwe include Matowa , Shangano , and Bumbusi . King Nchengwa Nengasha was the last King of Nambya in terms of authority before European settlers was claimed to have opened wanike colliery company . Rebellion brought Wange Kingdom down from 1896 after the death of King Nengasha , all leaders were appointed as Chiefs of Chiefdoms iinstead of Kingdoms and Chief Nengasha later Chief Nekatambe ruled from 1903 to 1950 .
According to Anthropologist Gwayo , Nambya People are descendants of Rozvi dynasty , and It is believed that they came from Great Zimbabwe and they now live clustered around Hwange , a town named after King Hwange a native Nambya . In their Culture marriage has been conducted basically three ways , which include Kuhwaya , tobela and Kutizhisa .

 For a couple to be pronounced husband and wife , the groom has to go through a process that shows his appreciation by paying Ishasha . It is said payment includes Imbuji yokwa tate namai and Pyangi lani yo kuno . The groom goes to his in laws with Izhendeyi for place to sleep . Early the following day , the grandmother or aunt takes the bride with cold water while they oil the grom as a symbol of weakling and the hardship of life . Mashaja is a meal of Sadza and placed in one plate form which the the bride and groom eat at the same time and throw the first morsels away at the same time .
In Nambya tradition , The groom shares his food with the bride’s younger sister however , he does not eat more than the girl basically to just test the girl if he is caring . In their Culture , the bride’s virginity is very important and celebrated . If the bride was a virgin, the family of the groom would carry a pot full of beer to the in laws as an Indication of Virginity and also praise the parents of the bride that they took good care of her daughter . 

The Bride also goes through bedroom lessons so that she is a complete knowledgeable woman , her grandmother teaches her how to respect , cook and love your husband and satisfy him as well.

 Nambya make Hwange Isangwa palm basket from woven IIala fibre and According to Ndzimu Unami Moyo account , In 1505 the Portuguese was believed to have formed their first settlement on the southeastern coast , the Makulanga Present day Bakalanga , BaNambya also known as Nambya and VhaVenda occupied the territory seaboard between Zambesi and Sabi rivers .
According to Onalenna Chabaya’s account on Nambya People of Zimbabwe , Kalanga are made up or divided into 120 major ethnic groups comprising Balozwi , BaNambya , VhaVenda , BaTalawunda , Babirwa , BaShangwe , BaTembe, BaTwamabo , BaTswapong , BaLobedu , BaLembethu and It is believed they all scattered acrossed Southern Africa from Kwa Zulu Natal all the way to Present day Tanzania and Present day Zimbabwe .
According to Mr. Musa Singland , there are about two tribes similarities , Shona are classified as Western Shona the Bakalanga and Eastern Shona . The Only Western Shona groups are Bakalanga are founded in Southwestern Zimbabwe and Botswana .

 The Bakalanga- Banyai groups include BaNambya , Bayela , Badhalaunda or Batalaote and Balima . Others claimed BaNambya also known as Nambya were started by one of Changamire’s Dombo’s son known as Sahwangawho lost out a succession and BuNanzva’s the northern dynasty by BaNambya but his brother known as Luwanayika crossed Zambezi and started a Lozi dynasty of Luwananyika.

 It is believed Sahwanga changed his totem to Shoko and ruled together with his son in law which is Chief Nelukoba . The Bajawunda are Originally Kalanga and It is believe BaNyamba are either originally Shona as well .
Nambya grow crops such as sorghum . millet , cassava ,pumpkin , yam , plantain and coconuts . Sorghum are used to make traditional beer called hwahwa and they keep cattles , sheeps and goats . The Cattles are kept but although useful for milk and their villages consists of mud and wattle huts , granaries and common kraals . Their Principal Chief Inherit position and power in a divine manner and as a King headed them.
 In their Culture , there is Inheritance , In customary marriages all property rights during marriage or after divorce or death belong to the man , children and relatives of the man or husband . Nambya have a rich tradition of metal working and wood carving also women make pottery and hand-woven basket while men work as fishermen , farmers and blacksmiths and In Nambya Concept.
They believe in a Supreme being and Ancestors who heal and protect them from evil , they also believe ancestral spirits are benevolent or malevolent they may Inspire Individual talents such as healing , artistic ability . Nambya Traditional medicine practices have succeeded in curing and scientific medicines are obtained from plants . 
Nambya built an anceint wall around 12th and 15th Centuries AD . Nambya Chiefs must be able to recite the history of their totems and they also use fabric painting and Iron work . In their tradition , they have contact with their ancestors and there is a ritual ceremony which lasts all night and a great great grand fathers are believed to pass down messages to their Children , grandchildren and their Children ‘s children’s children throughout the bloodline which is believed to be from the Creator a Supreme being which is God who cannot been seen and he is considered to be a spirit in the heavens , some of their names are associated with both God and the Ancestors furthermore , their ancestors are considered to be the Universal Intercessor .

 Nambya totems are Identify with different clans and historically made up the dynasties of their ancient civilization .
Their totems include animals such as Monkey , Lion , Zebra, Leopard, Snakes , Elephants and Hippopotamus . Among Nambya their music has influenced both traditional rhythms and sounds which are created using Instruments such as flute , marimba , drums , xylophone and mbira . Nambya Instrument is a small hand- held Instrument belonging to a family known as Lamellophones also referred as thumb pianos . 

The Mbira keys or Iron prongs are mounted on a hardwood sound board which is often placed skin and the calabash shell acts as deze . Most Nambya mud and wattle or sun- drieds are used in house buildings and may use concrete blocks .
Traditionally , houses are round with thatched roofing , square or rectangular with zinc sheet roofing , kitchens are built as thatched mud huts . Millet and Sorghum are grinded into a flour which is cooked as a thick porridge .
 Roasted and Stewed meat is used during celebrations such as ox, cow, goat , sheep are slaughtered and accompanied by rice and traditional beer is made by women . 
Nambya People celebrate festivals such as harvest festival , Shangano festivals and other types of festivals .
During Shangano , drama acting , music , script writing and dancing are taught and they performed Umbuyiso a traditional ceremony for enstoolment of Chiefs and the rain ceremony is celebrated once a year before raining in september .
 Traditional dancers wear Ingubo , micheka or yermijinu made up of black cloth and ox tail and the colour black signifies the life and death of the ancestors and the ox tail symbolized bringing the living and ancestors together . 
Nambya literature includes folklore , myths and traditional legends . Traditional arts includes sculptures , crafts , basket weaving , mat weaving and pottery , textiles , jewellery and carving . 
Nambya cultural dances are scared such as Miliya , Malila and Mhande .
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