History of Afro - Chileans of African Ancestry in Chile , South America.

History of Afro - Chileans of African Ancestry in Chile , South America.

Afro- Chileans are descendants of Africans in Chile, South America they were captured by the Europeans especially the Spanish People from different parts of Africa such as Republic and Democratic of Congo, Angola, Niger, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Benin, Togo, Guinea, Senegal, Gabon, Mozambique, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, some parts of Ivory Coast, some parts of Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Zambia and other parts of Africa. Afro- Chileans mainly are located in Arica y Parinacota in Chile, It is believed some of them might have came from Peru from the Antilles or towns in Africa, specifically from the Bantu regions some also were considered as descendants of Enslaved Africans brought from Africa to Present day Peru , Cuba , Brazil , then later brought to Chile .  
Afro- Chileans established their own organization to raise Consciousness such as Lumbanga, Oro Negro and Arica Negro, It is believed Afro- Chileans organization and Its population is estimated to be 8,000 , their city was founded in the 1570s which is known as Arica and It is used to be part of Peru until the 1880 which the Chilean forces captured Arica during the War of Pacific . It is said at the beginning of the colonial period, Peru used to be the frequent destinations for Enslaved Africans that had settled at the coast who had work in the rural and domestic occupations.
It believed that Arica was one of the main port that exported Bolivian silver to Europe , It is said a majority of the blacks brought from Africa had made Arica their new home since the beginning of the 1620s , Anurez an enslaved African in Chile and his people , they were chosen by their as Majors of Arica .  
It is said an Afro-Chileans known as Don Francisco de Borja y Aragon was declared by nominations to be void . According to the other account, Majority rights group, Afro- Chileans has never been officially recognized by the Chilean government in the national census .
 However, a recent study by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica which is translated as National Statistics Institute which is also referred by their population of Arica north and Parinacota region , where a large proportion of the people’s community are concentrated at 8 , 415 People . 
It is believed Slave trade had not reached the same scale as other countries in the region, 1,000 of the Enslaved Africans were nevertheless brought to Chile and then absorbed into the population , following the curtailment and subsequent abolition of Slavery in 1823, making It the 2nd and Haiti the first , Enslaved Africans that had settled at the coast who had work in the rural and domestic occupations .  
It is believed that Arica was one of the main port that exported Bolivian Silver to Europe, It is said a majority of the blacks brought from Africa had made Arica their town in Chile a new home since the beginning of the 1620s , an Enslaved African was freed in Chile and his people , they were choosen by their Majors in Arica . It is said An Afro- Chilean known as Don Francisco de Borja y Aragon was declared by nomations to be void .




The History of Afro- Chileans narrated by Natasha Dowell.


The Spaniards or Spanish didn’t find much to exploit when Afro- Chileans brought to Chile from Africa in the mid-1500s. There was no mineral resources such as gold, silver and Chile quickly became a blip on Spain’s map.
It is said Chile did have copper, however, and the Spaniards enslaved the Indigenous People ( Africans) to work in those mines . They later brought Africans to Chile to supplement the work force . Major Slave markets were more than 2100 miles away from the newly established Capital, making it too expensive to bring in large numbers of Enslaved Africans still , within the 100 years of Spanish Colonization , there were approximately 20,000 Afro- Chileans in the Country.

 It is said By the beginning of the 19th Century , Chile was fighting for its liberty or Independence from Spain and Afro- Chileans out of Patriotism fought against Spanish for Chilean Independence with the Chileans . It is said Slave Trade form Africa ceased , along with much of the recorded history of Afro- Chileans .


Other Afro- Chileans Historians narrated account on The History of Afro- Chileans.  


They believe speculated that there were much more men than women imported from Africa to Chile, leading to more frequent mixing with the European Immigrants which some of their culture were white washed by Europeans furthermore, The African Diaspora became Intertwined with the largely mistreated by the Europeans in the Diaspora as an act of Racism and hatred among White People.
 It is documented that the Chilean national dance, Cueca had African or black elements in Its Original Concept, Originating from Zamacueca of the Afro –Peruvian dance which has its roots originally in Africa It is combined with the Amerindian and African elements, The Spanish referred it by their Colonial term known as Zambo , Peru , Argentina , Bolivia and Chile also have the same dance as well .

 Francisco Antonio Encina once stated that 13 percent (13%) of the Africans came to Present day Chile with another African known as Diego de Almagro .


Historian Gonzalo Vial Correa ‘s account on Afro- Chileans History narrated .


It is believed that up to the 1558 there were number of blacks , mulattos and Zambos in Present day Chile which was about 5,000, compared being compared to other ethnicity such as Spaniards 34, 000 Including 92,000 white , Mestizos which is 27,000 and Indians which is 18,000 . It is said during the Colonial Period , Chile was part of the Slave Trade . Futhermore , they came through two routes , one that it is said it started at the Iberian Pennisula and went down all the way to Portobelo , Panama or Cartagena de Indias . The Spanish Slave Traders would get several goods which are stolen and delievered them to the markets of the Nueva Espana , Central America and Peru . 
It is said Enslaved Africans got to the Chilean ports of Coquimbo and Valparasio had a price that was a significant port for Slavery and the Oro Negro foundation believed 2,180 Enslaved Africans were shipped from Africa to the Callao port in 1783. It is believed on the second most direct route had started from Buenos Aires , Argentina and went through Cuavo to Mendoza they crossed the mountains to the Aconcagua Valley , Enslaved Africans were delivered to Santiago and Valparaiso , most of them were transported in the Illegally way .

 According to other account on Afro- Chileans, A Specific group of Africans or Blacks were part of the 8th Regiment of the Andean Liberation Army and fought against the Spaniards in Chacabuco . It is said an Army was organized in the territory of Argentina which was led by Africans and San Martin who was described as an Argentine Prime Leader to Liberate Chile and later endorsed the Liberation of Peru .
 San Martin demanded blacks contribution to the Liberacion which is translated as Liberation Army by a land Owners of Mendoza . They were Included in the Andean Liberation army as a way of receiving their Liberty after crossing of Andes and fought against the Spanish or Spaniards and Majority of the Africans lived in Santiago , Quillota , Region de Valparaiso in Chile and they had Intermarried with the Native Chileans , Native Chileans are described as Indians or Tainos and Europeans shaping a new ethnic Identity for Chile .


The Afro- Chileans of African Ancestry in Chile .


The Black Population in Arica , Chile has always been Innumerable and Arica was founded in the 1570 , Arica used to be part of Peru until 1929 . Since the beginning of the Colonial Period , It is said Peru was one of the most frequent fate of the Slave Ships in South America . Callao which was a port was said to be very close to Lima received a huge amounts of Enslave Africans.

 It is said most of the Africans arrived in Peru before they were shipped to Chile mostly It is said they came from Present day Congo , Angola , Guinea , Nigeria, Mozambique some parts of Ghana , Gabon and other parts of the African Continent . This Include ethnic groups which it is believed Enslaved Africans mostly came from such as Yoruba , Fon , Mandinka and Akan , Arica was one of the Principal port were merchandises brought them from Present day Bolivia were shipped to Europe.
 It is believed they found out San Martin demanded blacks contribution to the Liberacion Army by land owners of Mendoza . They were Included in the Andean Liberation army as a way of receiving their liberty after crossing of Andes and fought against the Spanish or Spaniards alongside In the 18th Century , there were no Europeans left in Arica . The Europeans had migrated towards the Tacna , there were only three Spanish known such as Francisco Yanez , Luis Carrasco and Ambrosio Sanchez had made Lluta their residence not only the last names or Surnames were used as “ Origin denomination” , The “ Carimba” was used by only Spanish Slave Traders in Arica and In 1724 Africans brought were sold by Spanish for the price of 700 pesos .


The History of Afro- Chileans narrated by Brandon Ryll .

According to Brandon Ryll’s account , Jean Beausejour also known as Jean Andre Emmanuel Beausejour Coliqueo , he was an Afro- Chilean who played for Colo Colo , In the Primera Division de Chile , Jose Romero was also of African and some of Spaniard Ancestry who was the prominent Independence Soldier and served with great distinction .

 The Afro- Chilean Population is most common in Arica , Camarones , Afro- Chileans are mainly located but they also spread out or Inhabited other places in Chile . They found out that Arica was a real Oasis in the middle of the dessert , Azapa Valley were the Sugar Cane and Cotton grew perfectly well . According to Historiographer Ricardo Palma , There were over 1,000 Enslaved Africans and 100 who were freed by 1620 in Arica . 
Majority of the blacks who were freed had names such as Anurez , Anurez the first freed Enslaved African became an elected Mayor in Arica . 6 months later the Victory of Afro- Peruvivans , Don Francisco de Borja y Aragon , that annulated the namings , arrived . It is believed Sonia Salgado , the Camarones City major , Is their President . She wants the rest of Afro- Chileans to know about the Struggle and joy of the People she represents. 
At the beginning of the Colonial time , Peru was one of the most frequent destinines for the black groups that had settled at the coast to start working in rural activities and house services . Most of the African People who came from Africa went to Peru then were brought to Chile by the Spanish they came from ethnic groups such as Fon , Yoruba and Akan , mostly came it is believed they also came from Niger , Nigeria , Gabon , Togo, Senegal , Mali , Cape Vedre , Gabon , Benin , Mozambique, Zambia , Ghana and other parts of Africa. 
It is said Arica was one of the main cities to receive these people the City of Arica was the main port from where Bolivian Silver was exported to Europe . It was a kind of Oasis in the middle of the desert , the Azapa Valley and Its production of Sugar Cane and Cotton , the City of Arica was quite Isolated duting those years the communication System was then very precarious . Finally , there was one more event that added African Inheritance to the Chilean blood . 

The City of Arica was finally Integrated to Chile , In 1929 , a lot of Afro- Chileans began living under the Chilean law , Black Africa is being described as daily work to promote their Traditions and Cultures , proving that their Influence goes beyond the Cueca or Zamacuecua and traced their roots back to the Motherland Africa .



The Historical account of Afro- Chileans by Virginia Rioseco and Lesile B. Routs .

According to Virginia Rioseco’s account , Oro Negro is the first Afro- descendants foundation in Chile . It was created on 5th December , 2000 , It is said Discrimination and Racism Regional Conference was organized in Santiago . 

The group was formally constituted in April , 2001, Afro- Chileans work in Arica , Since the majority of the African- Origin population lives near the Azapa Valley . Sonia Salgado , the Camarones City major in the first region, is the foundation’s President . Sonia stated that Orogo Negros Objectives Include the Political and Social recognition of Chile’s Afro-descendants , and the rescue and promotion of their Cultural roots , as well as helping them participate in Society’s diverse areas . 

Sonia quoted , “ We Stand Up and tell the whole world that those of us who are descendants of Africans have looked for a gathering Concept called Oro Negro , which allows us to live our way , making a song out of each letter , a joy out of pain , a dance out of each noise , a friendship out of each smile , and transforming our hands in lots of hands willing to help “. The Black Population in Arica was always considerable . The City was founded in 1570 and was part of Peru until 1929 

 According to Lesile B . Rout’s account on Afro- Chileans , On 11th September , 1811 the revoluntionary government of Chile declared its Independence from Spain , but for the nearly Chileans of African Ancestry , a more fundamental and decisive change had already occurred . Until the 18th Century , which It is said to be a good deal of the agricultural and minning labor had been the work of Enslaved Africans and free Negroids . It is believed Enslaved Negroids ( Africans) had become largely limited to Occupations in domestic and Urban labor .

The Historical account on Afro- Chileans by Mijiza Zeyzey and Daniela Estrada .

According to Mijiza Zeyzey , The Chile economy was not depended on free labor of Enslaved Africans . Due to this Chile was the 2nd Country in the new world to end and eventually Slavery was abolished . An estimated of 5,000 and 20,000 Africans they were brought from Africa to Chile . Some of the Unknown Maroons who are Afro- Chileans fought and died as Soldiers , It is mostly that Interracial marriages caused changes in Census at Statics . 

The Children of Interracial marriages also created a Census Category known as Mulatto . In the Mid 18th Century , There were almost 20,000 Mulattos in Present day Chile , 30,000 Population on rise to the 19th Century . According to Daniela Estrada’s account , The Afro- Chileans which they are described as People of African descendants have always fought against structural racism , not only in Present day Chile but throughout the Americas . 

It is said Chileans who Identify as blacks live mainly in Arica y Parinacota , the northernmost region in this long narrow South American Country . Later , as a result of the 1879- 1883 War of Pacific , which pitted Chile against Peru and Bolivia , the Peruvian Province of Arica was annexed by Chile and Its black population became part of the Country estimated from 2006 population .


Afro – Chilean Culture and Traditions .

Mario Rojas a Musician dedicated to reviving the traditional Cueca which has its Origin from the Bantu regions , Cueca is also performed in Bolivia , Argentina . 

During the Cueca dance performance , traditionally , white , blue , red or black costumes and dresses is needed men wear their huaso’s hat , shirts , flannel poncho , riding pants and boots , and spurs while the women wear flowered dresses .

 Cueca also during this dance the pair must wave the white handkerchief . Other claimed Cueca might be Nigerian or Angolan Origins and also the dance movements . The Traditional Afro- Chileans music Include a number of Old songs and traditional dances , most of them dates back to the 19th Century.

 Afro- Chileans music has both Spanish and African Influences , but it carries in Itself an expression of the People from their land down , the South Instruments Include Zampiona or Sika , Quena and Charango . Traditional Afro- Chilean food Include Sopaioillas Pasadas which is fried rounds of fluffy crispy squash enriched dough covered in a syrup made from dark cane Sugar and Infused with Orange , Clove and Cinnamon . Charquican Stew , Corn Humitas , Cazuela , Pastel del Choclo Chileno , Pabre Sauce and many more .

Jose Gil de Castro of Chile .

Jose Gil de Castro is both Afro- Chilean and Afro- Peruvian and a Painter who founded the School of Painting in Chile . Jose painted Images of the times of Independence In early 19th Century.

It is believed Jose Gil de Castro was believed to be poor extraction , probably being a Mulatto for that reason , Jose Gil de Castro recognized both his other Ancestry Including his African roots , Jose was a Painter of the higher Society and the revoluntionary leaders not only from Chile but from all South America and most of the potraits were designed by him .
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